Common Emergency Applications of CPR and AED

February 12, 2014Comments Off on Common Emergency Applications of CPR and AED

When the heart stops beating, the brain tissues eventually die and so death occurs. That’s how crucial the heart is for the human body. The problem usually arrives from malfunction or stoppage of heartbeat, which results to failure to deliver blood to different organs of the body, including the brain. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of automated external defibrillator (AED) are among the prescribed first aid practices for such life-threatening situation. Here are some of the common emergency cases where application of CPR and AED are highly required:

  • Attack of a Heart Disease – sudden cardiac disease, heart attack, and other deadly heart diseases are among the most common causes of deaths in the US as well as in several other countries around the world. These are generally triggered by clogged blood vessels, abnormalities in the heart muscle and tubes, or high blood pressure (hypertension). Obesity, type-2 diabetes, and inflammation of muscle tissues such as gums could also result or contribute to a certain heart disease.
  • Physical Injury – any injury that involves intense mechanical impact to the human body could extremely affect the heart and result to its malfunctioning. In some cases, dislocation and suppression of blood vessels cause the problem. There are also several cases where blood circulation is due to blocked airway resulted by the injury. Usually, the person’s pulse is used as indicator that he is still alive and his heart rhythm could be recovered through CPR and the use of AED.
  • Drowning – when a person gets drowned, water enters his airway and causes malfunction in his cardiorespiratory system. That’s why he can’t breathe and his heart stops beating. As an immediate response to a drowning victim, CPR is best done with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to pump out the water taken inside his body.
  • Drug Overdose – excessive intake of drugs, especially non-prescribed ones, are harmful to the cardiovascular system of the body. It could result to rapid development of abnormalities in the heart, blood vessels, and even in the respiratory organs. When this happens, the sufferer can’t breathe normally and his heart rhythm changes drastically.
  • Suffocation – just like drowning, inability to breathe due to suffocation causes the heart to stop working. This could happen when an enclosed room where there is limited oxygen or where there is smoke or any harmful gas. Actually, just covering a person’s head with a plastic bag could lose his breathing and so suffocation takes place.
  • Electric Shock – ventricular fibrillation is just one of the reasons why the heart stops functioning. Aside from the occurrence of a heart disease, this could take place when a person gets electric shocked at an intense level, making the heart loses its normal rhythm. To recover normal heartbeat, a particular amount of electric energy could be applied also with the use of an AED.

Get to know more about CPR and AED at You can opt for an extensive CPR training at Citywide CPR if you want to become prepared enough against the said between-life-and-death scenarios. Just visit their website to get a glimpse of the CPR training they offer.

Six Steps towards a Successful AED Program

February 10, 2014Comments Off on Six Steps towards a Successful AED Program

Are you assigned to devise an AED program for your company or institution? Then here are some of the important things you can take note of so you could find your way towards a successful AED program. Just make sure you plan ahead of time and never take things in a hurry without careful observation, analysis, or consultation from the experts. The following are the six simple steps towards a powerful and effective AED program:

  • Research on the Statistics: Know What Makes an AED Program Necessary

It is necessary to find out first why your community needs an AED program. Seek for reliable references on the recent statistics related to the need and use of automated external defibrillator or AED. Identify the extent of the possibility of threats like injuries, suffocation, drowning, electric shock, drug overdose, heart attack or heart failure, and other emergency situations that call the need of AED along with the application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

  • Consult and Ask Help from Medical Experts and Health Organizations for the Heart

As a careful planner, you have to consult those who are knowledgeable and experienced with AED matters to confirm or ask clarification of the statistics you have researched. Medical experts and organizations for cardiovascular health are ideal references for extensive and accurate information. If possible, ask help from them when there are some things on your AED program plan that you can’t figure out.

  • Get Educated with the State and Jurisdictional AED Requirements

A very crucial step is to know and understand what the law says about the use and management of AEDs. You need to take time learning how to make your AED program in accordance to the law and what you should do to avoid violations.

  • Learn the AED Technicalities: Operation, Maintenance, and Safety Measures

Before you can come up with your AED program, you need to know how AEDs basically work. It is also very important to be knowledgeable enough with the technical specifications and to work on the essential procedures for ensuring safe and effective use of the AED. Take note that various AED brands have corresponding set of technical matters.

  • Set Your AED Policies, Standards, and Procedures

This is the point where you join together and make a summary of everything you have learned about AEDs – statistics, legal requirements, and technicalities. Make a list of how policies, standards, and procedures that could make the most of your AED. Devise a plan on how to train the members of your community on using the AED as well.

  • Plan for the Most Appropriate AED Placement and Management

Finally, find out the most advisable location for the placement of your AED. It should be accessible and noticeable to everyone but safe enough against factors that could trigger accidents and other unwanted events. Plan how to monitor the AED effectively and manage the various procedures related to it.

For more information about AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight, just check out Citywide CPR is an accredited and trusted provider of various emergency medical services training such as AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight.

What Makes Sugar Unhealthy for the Heart

February 6, 2014Comments Off on What Makes Sugar Unhealthy for the Heart

Other than fatty and oily foods, sweet and sugar-rich foods are often blamed when someone suffers from a certain heart disease. The various explanations come in a long list but some of these are merely myths or rumors. Anyway, it would be a big plus for a person taking care of someone with a heart disease to know the real correlation between sugar and this kind of fatal disease.

It’s a fact that the human body needs sugar as a means of energy. However, sugar intake should be kept at prescribed level only because once you go beyond this; it is no longer healthy for you. Excessive sugar intake is likely to cause fat buildups and if this happens continuously, this would result to a heart disease, aside from obesity – a medical condition nobody wants to suffer from. With regards to the heart, too much sugar becomes unhealthy when the accumulated body fat gets stuck inside the blood vessels. This could affect the flow of blood to and from the heart. Thus, the heart tends to function abnormally as more and more clogging is developed within the blood vessels.

Meanwhile, another way for excessive sugar intake to become unhealthy for the heart is when you have gained weight drastically. If you have noticed, almost all obese and overweight people are likely to become less capable of doing musculoskeletal activities or anything that allows their muscles and bones to exercise. They are mostly hindered either by the huge bulge in their belly or by their lack of motivation to refrain from taking sugar excessively and other unhealthy habits. As a result, they become candidates for high blood pressure and heart conditions like heart failure.

One thing you can do to prevent too much sugar consumption is by choosing the types of food you eat. Most fruits are advisable because they only contain sugar level that is enough for the body’s energy. Sugar level is basically measured in terms of glycaemic index or GI. Generally, low GI foods are good for the health and those with high GI are to be avoided. Common foods with high GI include candies, chocolates, processed and artificial sweeteners, and soda. Furthermore, you could avoid getting tempted to eat high GI foods by suppressing your appetite. As much as possible, get yourself hydrated so that you will feel full often and for a long period of time. You should also avoid stressful situations and environment or have enough rest and sleep so that you won’t tend to think you deserve to eat sugar-rich foods that entice you most.

If the extent of the effects of excessive sugar intake has triggered a fatal heart disease, the next best thing you can do for a sufferer is to learn doing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), even just the basics. Proper CPR training could be a big help to make you a prepared and responsible lifesaver for someone at risk of heart attack and other deadly heart conditions. See more details about CPR training and other helpful tips for the heart at

Does Sleep Deprivation Affect the Heart?

February 4, 2014Comments Off on Does Sleep Deprivation Affect the Heart?

It’s already given that the heart is among the most important organs in the human body since it is responsible for keeping blood circulation in the body at its normal state. Without proper circulation of blood throughout the body, most of the other organs will be affected and the processes inside the body will be chaotic. The result could be as worst as death. Hence, it is just necessary for any person to take good care of his/her own heart in order to keep its utmost functionality.

The human heart is a non-stop worker – it continues its operation whether you are awake or asleep, working or at rest. It works hand-in-hand with the brain, which is another continuously-operating organ, to allow the blood vessels transport blood to and from various parts of the body. That’s why when something goes wrong with the brain, the heart is likely to suffer as well. This would unfortunately lead to a certain heart disease. Likewise, the brain along with other organs in the body would not survive when the heart has ceased working even just for several minutes.

With that said, it would be a big help to identify the factors that have negative effects to the brain leading to a heart problem. One of these is frequent lack of sleep, which is medically known as sleep deprivation. According to several clinical tests and research, sleep deprivation has several effects to the human brain. It is likely to take place when your body is not able to achieve enough sleep for at least a couple of days. As a result, it tends the brain to lose its normal operation and so several medical conditions will take place one after another like a chain reaction. The heart could get affected by this in different ways but the most common heart-related medical conditions resulted by sleep deprivation are hypertension, heart attack, and heart failure.

Proper medication and a strictly balanced diet are among the best remedies for sleep deprivation along with the alternatives for achieving sound sleep. The physician’s prescription is highly needed if you want to overcome this problem and to avoid its worsening. However, sufferers of sleep deprivation who already experience symptoms of a deadly heart disease are advised to start diverting their lifestyle into a healthy one. It would also be a big help to stay with someone who is knowledgeable of doing CPR just in case you get caught by heart attack or any other similar heart conditions.

On the other hand, if you are with a person who suffers from a heart disease, whether derived from sleep deprivation or not, the best thing you can do is to prepare yourself to become a lifesaver – a CPR practitioner. The American Heart Association (AHA) has already recommended everyone to learn at least basic or chest-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Many training centers have already been accredited by the AHA to provide extensive CPR training courses for those who want to learn this first aid process. One of them is Citywide CPR, which is an acclaimed training center for various emergency medical services, including CPR training.

Simple Preventive Measures before Applying CPR

January 31, 2014Comments Off on Simple Preventive Measures before Applying CPR

Everyone is strongly encouraged to learn something about cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simply known as CPR. This is basically due to the fact that life-threatening heart diseases and other situations resulting to heart malfunction could take place anytime and anywhere, including at home. Thus, the simplest thing that anyone can do about it is to apply CPR as a first aid care to the sufferer. Without this, there is a high chance that the patient would lose his or her life.

On the other hand, it is also very important to know what to do before applying CPR to the patient. One of these is making sure that both you and the patient are in a safe place. This means that there should be enough space around you, which is free of any body of water, sharp objects or edges, any uncovered moving machine, and extreme temperature. It is also not advisable to change transfer the patient to another place, unless preventive measures are not satisfied in the original location. This is to avoid delay of application of CPR – that could be fatal – as well as probable complications in the patient’s status. Take a few seconds to examine whether there is anyone else who is a medical expert or at least, knows better about CPR. If possible, call 911 immediately to ask for medical assistance; make sure you provide enough details on your location.

There are several symptoms that a person suffers from heart malfunction. The most obvious one is the patient’s unconsciousness, which is very threatening when it comes with the absence of the patient’s heartbeat and pulse. In the even that you are not sure enough about CPR, you can first try tapping the patient several times and shout “Are you OK? Are you OK?”. If there is no any sign of response from the patient, then it would be best to apply whatever you know about CPR. To help you out, here are some key points of this first aid practice:

  • Chest compressions are normally at least 2 inches deep and should be done forcefully, except in the case of a child patient wherein you have to apply these gently to prevent breakage on the ribs.
  • Ideal frequency for chest compressions is about 100 times per minute.
  • You have the option to provide artificial breathing for the patient through mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  • If there is an available automated external defibrillator (AED) nearby, make sure of it with the help of quick manuals and the device’s automatic functions.
  • Repeat these processes until the patient recovers normal heartbeat and becomes unconscious. While the patient is still alive, it is advisable to keep doing CPR unless the necessary medical assistance has arrived.

More comprehensive CPR topics could be learned when you go for a CPR training, especially at Citywide CPR – a noted training center for a diverse range of emergency medical services. Visit them at to see what their CPR training courses have to offer to make you prepared and confident enough whenever there is an emergency situation that needs the use of CPR. Get trained now!

What is an AED’s IP Rating?

January 29, 2014Comments Off on What is an AED’s IP Rating?

The use of automated external defibrillator (AED) has now become very helpful in maximizing the chances of saving the person of someone undergoing heart malfunction. There is no doubt for that because nowadays, the law says that each workplace and public area should provide an accessible AED for anyone to use when emergency arises. Even for homes, it is also strongly suggested to secure an AED due to the fact that cases of heart attack, sudden cardiac arrest, and other fatal heart problems while at home have drastically increased over the years.

With regards to that, it would be necessary to know several important features of an AED. One of these is the Ingress Protection (IP), which is classified into two: the Liquid Ingress Protection and the Solid Particle Protection. The liquid ingress protection refers to how much protection the device has against contact or ingress of water as well as any other type of liquid. Same goes with the solid particle protection, but the only difference is that it refers to protection against foreign solid particles. The following are the 10 levels indicating the device’s liquid ingress protection:

  • Level 0 – device is not protected against entrance of or contact to various liquids
  • Level 1 – device is protected against dripping water
  • Level 2 – device is not affected by vertically dripping water when the enclosure is in its normal position or not tiled to an angle not more than 15 degrees
  • Level 3 – same with level 2 but the maximum safe enclosure tilt angle could be as much as 60 degrees
  • Level 4 – device is not affected by splashes of water from any direction
  • Level 5 – device is protected even against a nozzle of water from any direction
  • Level 6 – device remains protected even against water projected by a powered jet
  • Level 7 – device is not affected when it is immersed in water within the indicated pressure and time values
  • Level 8 – device remains unharmed even when continuously immersed in water, except for some defined circumstances

For the solid particle protection, where are the seven levels to note of:

  • Level 0 – device is not protected against ingress or contact of any foreign solid object
  • Level 1 – device is protected against ingress or contact of large objects, including large surfaces of the body.
  • Level 2 – device is unharmed by ingress or contact of fingers and several other similar objects
  • Level 3 – device remains protected against ingress or contact of tools, thick wires, and similar objects
  • Level 4 – device is protected against various wires, screws, and other similar particles.
  • Level 5 – device is dust-protected but severe cases could affect its operability.
  • Level 6 – device is completely dust-protected and unharmed by various types of solid particles.

For more essential information about AEDs, you can opt for the AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courses offered at reputable emergency medical services training centers. Citywide CPR is one of them and you can get to know more of this training center at Start your AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training now!

What the Law Says about Provision of AED

January 27, 2014Comments Off on What the Law Says about Provision of AED

According to the law, each employer is required to provide appropriate and adequate facilities, equipment, and personnel necessary for first aid care. This is to ensure that employees receive immediate and proper medication whenever they unfortunately get injured or get ill while at work. The Health and Safety Regulations of 1981 indicates that the said law is applicable for all types of workplaces even for those with less than 5 employees. It was then updated in 2013 by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to give more flexible options on the selection of the provider of first aid training. In this way, employers could better provide what is needed in the specific nature of their workplace.

One of the basic emergency medical devices that each employer must provide is the automated external defibrillator (AED). This is primarily used to regenerate the malfunctioning heart of a patient, whether he suffers from certain heart disease, drowning, electric shock, suffocation, or drug overdose. It includes defibrillator pads that are pressed into the patient’s chest in order to deliver the necessary electric shock for recovering the patient’s heart. There are also visual and sometimes, audio prompters that indicate what the user should do with the device according to the analysis made by the device on the heart rhythm of the patient. Apart from that, modern AEDs have advanced automation features for more convenience to the user and for more accurate and safer results.

The Health and Safety Regulations require employers to have an AED accessible to all people, including visitors, within the work premises. This should be mounted with a protective casing that is red-colored to make it noticeable enough for everyone. However, it should be secured enough and must be easily accessed by children or animals to avoid misuse of the device and other unwanted results. The AED should also be labeled with important instructions and warnings in order to maximize the chances that a lay responder would be able to use it effectively when an emergency calls.

It is also necessary for the employer to have their employers knowledgeable enough at least on the basic first aid practices, including the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that requires proper use of the AED to increase its success rate. User manuals of the device should be accessible for everyone, except in some special cases. As much as possible, the AED to provide is automatic and easy-to-use to avoid inconvenience or delay of application. This is derived from the fact that every second counts when a patient’s heart ceases to function; a matter of minutes of delay in the first aid care could be fatal. Because this is an electronic medical device, adequate safety measures for the user should be provided as well.

If you want to have a more comprehensive discussion on an effective AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight, simply check out This is Citywide CPR’s official website wherein you can get to know more of their wide range of emergency medical services. Take an AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courser now!

An Introduction to the Parts of the Human Heart

January 21, 2014Comments Off on An Introduction to the Parts of the Human Heart

If you want to protect someone at risk of the fatal attacks of a certain heart disease, then it would be best to know a bit of the essential parts of the human heart and rest of the circulatory system. This knowledge could be used to understand better the different means of medication and treatment for the heart, including the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. In this way, you could be more prepared and responsible enough whenever a life-threatening situation takes place for the sufferer of a heart disease.

Included to the important parts of the body’s circulatory system are the following:

  • Aorta – this is the largest artery in a human body and is responsible for transporting oxygenated blood from the heart’s left ventricle to the veins connected to other parts of the body.
  • Arteries – these are blood vessels that transport blood from the heart to the other parts of the body.
  • Bicuspid Valve – this is the valve that connects the left ventricle and left atrium.
  • Coronary Vessels – these are blood vessels that carry blood supply for the heart muscle.
  • Left Ventricle – this is the part of the heart muscle responsible for pumping the oxygenated blood towards the aorta.
  • Pulmonary Artery – this is the artery that transports deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • Pulmonary Vein – this is the blood vessel for transporting the oxygenated blood to the left atrium.
  • Right Atrium – this is the part of the heart that receives the deoxygenated blood from other parts of the body.
  • Right Ventricle – this is the part of the heart muscle that pumps the deoxygenated blood towards the pump.
  • Tricuspid Valve – this is the valve that connects the right ventricle to the right atrium.
  • Veins – these are blood vessels that take blood from other parts of the body to the heart.
  • Vena Cave – this is the largest vein in the body and it responsible for carrying back blood from other parts of the body to the heart.

It is also a good idea to do a research to know more of these parts of the heart and circulatory system. Once you have understood how the heart functions through these parts, there is no doubt that you would be more able to effectively use an automated external defibrillator or AED as a lifesaver device. This medical device is usually a big help in increasing the success rate of CPR to a person who have undergone heart malfunction and/or seizure. It is not only applicable for heart disease patients, but to people who got unconscious as a result of severe electric shock, suffocation, drug overdose, or drowning.

For advanced knowledge on CPR, you can opt for the CPR training courses offered by Citywide CPR, which is one of today’s most trusted training institutions for emergency medical services. This is where you could obtain what it takes to become a professional CPR practitioner, including the rules and standards imposed by the American Heart Association. Take some time to visit the official website of Citywide CPR to know more of the CPR training courses they offer.

Important Features to Check in an AED

January 19, 2014Comments Off on Important Features to Check in an AED

It is such a waste of money to buy something that doesn’t give back you what you have paid for. In other words, it is never desirable to pay much for something that only brings a few benefits to you, unless money is never a problem for you. That’s why it has been a common money-saving tip that careful selection among the available options should be done before deciding to purchase a certain item. In most cases, it is best to plan ahead of time on the certain item you want to purchase out of the given resources. This is also applicable if you are looking for the best automated external defibrillator (AED) to buy. Hence, knowing what you have to look for in a particular AED brand and model would be a great initial step.

First among the most important features you should check in an AED is the Pediatric Capability. How old is the person intended for this medical device? Remember that children, especially those aging 8 years and below are not yet strong enough for the effects of electrode pads that are pressed against their chest. This simply means that you have to choose an AED model that has a pediatric capability indicating that the age of the user is valid for the application. Meanwhile, you should also take time to see the type and rating of the ECG (electrocardiogram) Display of the AED. This is basically an LCD or LED indicator that displays the analysis on the patient’s heart rate and heart rhythm. It also informs the user if there are any conduction abnormalities and other symptoms of heart attack or any similar heart disease.

It is also necessary to see the two Ingress Protection (IP) ratings of the certain AED brand – the Liquid Ingress Protection and the Solid Particle Protection. Liquid Ingress Protection is merely an indication of how well-protected the device is when water or any type of liquid gets inside of it. Level 0 represents no protection while level 10, the highest rating, indicates the highest liquid ingress protection. In short, the higher the liquid ingress protection rating, the better the AED model is. Furthermore, the AED’s Solid Particle Protection level is similar to liquid ingress protection rating wherein higher rating means better protection and thus, better quality of the product. Level 0 means that no protection against ingress or contact of solid objects is provided to the device whereas level 6, the highest level, refers to a device that is dust tight and there is complete protection against any foreign solid object.

To know other important features to check in an AED, you can opt for Citywide CPR’s AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courses. These could be of great help, especially if you are living with someone suffering from a certain disease and that anytime, he or she could undergo a severe attack that becomes a between-life-and-death situation. You are very much welcome to visit to see more details about the said AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courses.

A Preview of Common Types of Heart Diseases

January 17, 2014Comments Off on A Preview of Common Types of Heart Diseases

There’s no sense in knowing the technicalities about the automated external defibrillator if you don’t have enough understanding about heart diseases. Over a hundred types of heart diseases have already been identified throughout the centuries. Among the most common and most threatening of these are the following:

  • Myocardial Infarction (MI) – commonly known as Heart Attack. This involves death of brain tissues due to lack of blood supply after the heart ceased from its normal rhythm. It could cause permanent damage to the heart muscles if not treated immediately.
  • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation – are conditions of irregular heart rhythm. These are also life-threatening once these cause the heart to stop functioning.
  • Cardiomegaly – otherwise known by many as enlarged heart. This is typically a result of coronary artery disease or hypertension (high blood pressure).
  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DC) – a heart condition that anyone of any age is at risk
  • Heart Murmurs – can be due to the flow of blood through an overworked or damaged heart valve.
  • Marfan Syndrome – an inherited genetic disorder that attacks and weakens connective tissues of the heart and of other vital organs in the body.
  • Coronary Artery Disease – this is the leading heart disease in the US with over 13 million American sufferers.
  • Heart Valve Disease – a common heart disease that results to malfunctioning of the heart valve.
  • Cardiomyopathy – also known as heart muscle disease and another common cardiovascular disease.
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) – a disease characterized by thickening of the heart’s walls.
  • Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM) – a rare heart disease and not yet fully understood.
  • Congenital Heart Disease – a life-threatening disease that is both hereditary and acquired.
  • Pericardial Effusion – a heart disease caused by fluid around the heart that is a product of cancer, heart surgery, kidney disease, and various types of infection or inflammation.
  • Pericarditis – it happens when the pericardium, the small sac that holds the heart, gets infected.
  • Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) – a very common and high-mortality-rate heart disease in the US as well as in many other parts of the world.

Knowing the specific type of heart disease your loved one suffers from; you will be able to determine the most appropriate AED that could be used as protection against threats of seizure. This information would also help you maximize the functionality and effectiveness of the AED unit that you have. Apart from that, this would help you determine the corresponding immediate actions, including the tools and materials to prepare and use when the emergency case takes place.

Furthermore, if you want to know more about the proper and responsible use of AEDs, you can go for the AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courses offered at Citywide CPR. These training courses would surely help you become ready and knowledgeable enough so you can be the best lifesaver you could be whenever the need calls. Feel free to take a tour at Citywide’s official website, to find out more about this training center and the myriad of emergency medical services it offers. Go for AED Program Management and AED Medical Oversight training courses at Citywide CPR now!

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